Tasks area publications before 2000


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Hendriksen, C.F.M and Morton, D.B. (eds) (1999). Humane Endpoints in Animal Experiments for Biomedical Research. Proceedings of the International Conference, 22-25 November 1998, Zeist, The Netherlands. pp. 150. London: The Royal Society Medicine Press Ltd.  
Hendriksen, C.F.M., Steen, B., Visser, J., Cussler, K., Morton, D.B., and Streijger, F. (1999). The evaluation of humane endpoints in pertussis vaccine potency testing. In C.F.M. Hendriksen and D.B., Humane Endpoints in Animal Experiments for Biomedical Research. Proceedings of the International Conference, 22-25 November 1998, Zeist, The Netherlands, (106-113). London: The Royal Society Medicine Press Ltd.  
Winsnes, R., Hendriksen, C.F.M., Sesardic, D., Akkermans, A., and Daas, A. (1999). Serological assays as alternatives to the Ph. Eur. challenge test for batch release of tetanus vaccines for human use. In F. Brown, C.F.M. Hendriksen, and D. Sesardic (eds), Alternatives to animals in the development and control of biological products for human and veterinary use (277-288). Developments in Biological Standardization, 101. Basel: S. Karger AG.  
Council of Europe (1998). Alternatives to animal tests in the development and control of erysipelas vaccines. Proceedings of the symposium. 28 April 1998, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Langen, Germany. Pharmeuropa Special Issue, BIO 98-1, pp. 100. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.  
Cussler, K., Morton, D.B., and Hendriksen, C.F.M (1998). Humane endpoints for the estimation of lethality rates in the potency testing of rabies vaccines. ALTEX 15, Supplement 1998, 40-42.  
Halder, M., Embleton, J., Fischer, R., de Geus, B., Hendriksen, C., de Leeuw, W.A., Marx, U. and Balls, M. (1998). Comments on appendix C of the NIH response to the petition of the American Anti-Vivisection Society (AAVS) to prohibit the use of animals in the production of monoclonal antibodies. ATLA 26, 549-554.  
Hendriksen, C.F.M. (1998). A call for a European prohibition of monoclonal antibody (mAb) production by the ascites procedure in laboratory animals. ATLA 26, 523-540.  
Mulders, J.W.M., Derksen, M., Swolfs, A. and Maris, F. (1997). Prediction of the in vivo biological activity of human recombinant follicle stimulating hormone using quantitative isoelectric focusing. Biologicals 25, 269-281.  
Weisser, K. and Hechler, U. (1997). Animal welfare aspects in the quality control of immunobiologicals. A critical evaluation of animal tests in pharmacopoeial monographs. Published by FRAME, Nottingham, UK for ECVAM and the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut.  
Rooijakkers, E.J., Groen, J., Uittenbogaard, J.P., van Herwijnen, J., Osterhaus, A.D. (1996). Development and evaluation of alternative testing methods for the in vivo NIH potency test used for the quality control of inactivated rabies vaccines. In F. Brown, K. Cussler, and C.F.M. Hendriksen (eds), Replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experiments in the development and control of biological products, (137-145). Developments in Biological Standardization, 86. Basel: S. Karger AG.  

Barriers, Nephrotoxicity and Chronic Testing
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Cecchelli R., Dehouck B., Descamps L., Fenart L., Buee-Scherrer V., Duhem C., Lundquist S., Rentfel M., Torpier G., Dehouck M.P. (1999) In vitro model for evaluating drug transport across the blood-brain barrier. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 36, 165-178.  
Nolan J.P. Lauer S., Prossnitz E.R., Sklar L.A. (1999). Flow cytometry: a versatile tool for all phases of drug discovery. Drug Discovery Today 4, 173-180.  
Pardrige W.M. (1999) Blood-brain barrier biology and methodology. Journal of NeuroVirology 5, 556-569.  
Raeissi S.D., Hidalgo I.J., Segura-Aguilar J., Artursson P. (1999). Interplay between CYP3A-mediated metabolism and polarized efflux of terfenadine and its metabolites in intestinal epithelial Caco-2 (TC7) cell monolayers. Pharmaceutical Research 16 (5), 625-632.  
Garber P. (1998). In Vitro Models of the Blood-Brain Barrier. ATLA 26, 821-847.  
Pfaller W. and Gstraunthaler G. (1998). Nephrotoxicity Testing in Vitro - What we Know and What We Need to Know. Environmental Health Perspectives 106 (2), 559-569.  
Artursson P., Borchardt R.T. (1997) Intestinal drug absorption and metabolism in cell cultures: Caco-2 and beyond. Pharmaceutical Research 14 (12), 1655- 1657.  
Bach P.H., Morin J-P., Pfaller W. (1996). Nephrotoxicity - What we have learned and what we still need to know!. TEN 3 (1), 4-13.  
Meunier V., Bourri← M., Berger Y., Fabre G. (1995). The human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2; pharmacological and pharmacokinetic applications. Cell Biology and Toxicology 11, 187-194.  
Steinma￟l D., Pfaller W., Gstraunthaler G, Hoffmann W. (1995). LLC-PK1 cells as a model for in vitro assessment of proximal tubular nephrotoxicity. In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol. 31, 94-106.  
Wils P., Warnery A., Phung-Ba V., Scherman D. (1994). Differentiated intestinal epithelial cell lines as in vitro models for predicting the intestinal absorption of drugs. Cell Biology and Toxicology 10, 393-97.  
Gstraunthaler G. and Pfaller W. (1993). The use of cultured renal epithelial cells in in vitro assessment of xenobiotics-induced toxicity. In: Renal disposition and nephrotoxicity of xenobiotics. Ed. Anders MW., Dekant W., Henschler D., Oberleithener H., Silbernagl S. Academic Press, INC. San Diego, pp. 27 - 61.  
Artursson P. and Karlsson J. (1991) Correlation between drug absorption in humans and apparent drug permeability coefficients in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm 175 (3), 880-885.  
Ullrich K.J., Rumrich G., Gemborys M.W., Dekant W. (1991). Renal transport and nephrotoxicity. In: Nephrotoxicity. Mechanisms, early diagnosis, and therapeutic management. Eds. Bach P.H., Gregg N.J., Wilks M.F., Delacruz L. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York/Basel/Hong Kong, pp. 1-8.  
Gstraunthaler G., Pfaller W., Kotanko P. (1985). Biochemical characterization of renal epithelial cell cultures (LLC-PK1 and MDCK). Am. J. Physiol. 248, F536-F544.  
Powell DW. (1981) Barrier function of epithelia. Am. J. Physiol. 241, G275-G288.  

Computer Modelling and Integrated Testing
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Worth, A.P. & Cronin, M.T.D. (1999). Embedded cluster modelling - a novel method for analysing embedded data sets. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships 18, 229-235.  
Worth, A.P. & Fentem, J.H. (1999). A general approach for evaluating stepwise testing strategies. ATLA 27, 161-177.  
Worth, A.P., Barratt, M.D. & Houston, J.B. (1998). The validation of computational prediction techniques. ATLA 26, 241-247.  
Worth, A.P., Fentem, J.H., Balls, M., Botham, P.A., Curren, R.D., Earl, L.K., Esdaile, D.J. & Liebsch, M. (1998). An evaluation of the proposed OECD testing strategy for skin corrosion. ATLA 26, 709-720  

Embryo and Cardiotoxicity
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Bigot K., Clothier, R. & Bremer S. (1999). An embryotoxicological investigation of protein expression during embryonic stem cell differentiation. ATLA 27, Special Issue, 291  
Bigot K., J.De Lange., G.Archer, R.Clothier, S.Bremer (1999). The relative semi-quantitative expression as useful toxicological endpoint for identification of embryotoxic/teratogenic substances. Toxicology in vitro 13, 619-623.  
Bremer S., Vogel R. (1999). Pluripotent stem cells of the mouse as a potential in vitro model for mammalien germ cells. Mutation Research 444, 97-102  
Bremer S., van Dooren M., Paparella M., Kolossov E., Fleischmann B. and Hescheler J. (1999). Establishment of an Embryotoxicity Assay with Green Fluorecence Protein expressing embryonic cell-derived cardiomyocyts. ATLA 27, 471-484  
Bremer S., van Dooren M., Paparella M., Kolossov E., Fleischmann B. and Hescheler J. (1999). Effects of embryotoxic chemicals on the in vitro differentiation of genetically engineered ES cells into cardiac cells. Toxicology in vitro 13, 645-650  
Genschow E., Scholz G., Brown N.A., Piersma A., Brady M., Clemann N., Huuskonen H., Paillard F., Bremer S. and Spielmann H. (1999). Entwicklung von Praedikationsmodellen fuer drei in vitro Embryotoxicitaetstests im Rahmen einer Validierungsstudie.ALTEX 16, 73-83  
Scholz G.,Genschow E., Pohl I., Bremer S., Paparella M., Raabe H., Southee J. and Spielmann H. (1999). Prevalidation of the embryonic stem cell test (EST)- A new in vitro embryotoxicity test. Toxicology in vitro 13, 675-681  
Scholz G., Pohl I., Seiler A., Bremer S., Brown N., Piersma A., Holzhuetter H. and Spielmann H. (1998). Ergebnisse der ersten Phase des ECVAM-Projektes zur Praevalidierung und Validierung von drei in vitro Embryotoxizitaetests. Altex 15, 3-8  
Scholz G., Pohl I., Seiler A., Bremer S. Moldenhauer F., Holzhuetter G. and Spielmann H. (1998). In vitro testing of embryotoxicity using the embryonic stem cell test: An inter-laboratory comparison. Nauyn-Schmiedebergs Archieves of Pharmacology 357, 606  
Bremer S. and Bigot K. (1997). Comparison of three different toxicological endpoints in the establishment of an in vitro embryotoxicity screening system based on embryonic stem cells. European Journal of Cell Biology 74, 26  
Heuer J., Bremer S., Pohl I. and Spielmann H. (1995). Development of an in vitro embryotoxicity test using murine embryonic stem cell cultures. Toxicology in vitro 7, 551-556  
Bremer S., Hertel H. and Wachmann E.(1993). Degeneration of the compound Eye of the termite Neotermes Jouteli (Isoptera) in darkness during the phase of reproduction. Zoomorphology 113, 205-210  
Notter M., Ludwig W.D., Bremer S. and Thiel E. (1993). Selektive targeting of human lymphokine-activated killer-cells by CD3 monoclonal antibody against the interferon inducible high affinity FC-gamma Ri receptor (CD64) on autologous acute myeloid leukemic blast cells. Blood 82, 3113-3124  

Eye Irritation
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Balls, M., Botham, P.A., Bruner, L.H. & Spielmann, H. (1995) The EC/HO international validation study on alternatives to the Draize eye irritation test. Toxicology in Vitro 9, 871-929.  

GLP, GCCP and In Vitro Toxicity
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Coecke, S. & Bowe, G. (1999). OLIVE: GLP On-Line in vitro Toxicology. Information Brochure. ECVAM/JRC publications, Ispra.  
Blaauboer, B.J., Balls, M., Barratt, M., Casati, S., Coecke, S., Mohamed, M.K., Moore. J., Rall. D., Smith. K.R., Tennant. R., Schwetz, B.A., Stokes, W.S. & Younes, M. (1998) 13th meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC): alternative testing methodologies and conceptual issues. Environmental Health Perspectives 106, 413-418.  

Haematotoxicity and Anti-cancer Drugs
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Gribaldo, L., Casati, S., Castoldi, F. A. and Pessina, A. (1999). Comparison of In Vitro Drug-Sensitivity of Human Granulocyte-Macrophage Progenitors from Two Different Origins: Umbilical Cord Blood and Bone Marrow. Experimental Hematology 27, 1593-1598.  

Human Studies
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Zuang, V. & Berardesca, E. (1998) Designing and performing clinical studies with bioengineering techniques. In: Skin Bioengineering Techniques and Applications in Dermatology and Cosmetology (ed. P. Elsner, A.O. Barel, E. Berardesca, B. Gabard & J. Serup). Current Problems in Dermatology 26, 209-216.  

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Bull, S., Catalani, P., Garle, M., Coecke, S. & Clothier, R. (1999) Imipramine for cytochrome P450 determination: a multiple-species metabolic probe. Toxicology in Vitro 13, 537-541.  

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Stingele, S., Nicotera, P.L., Balls, M. & Coecke, S. (1999) Genetically engineered cell lines, and their uses, in particular for neurotoxicity testing. Patent No. 99402139.2-2106/International No PCT/EP00/08223, European Patent Office, Munich, Germany.  

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Spielmann, H., Balls, M., Dupuis, J., Pape W.J.W., Pechovitch, G., DeSilva, O., H?lzhutter, H.G., Clothier, R.H., Desolle, P., Gerberick, F., Liebsch, M., Lovell, W.W., Maurer, T., Pfannenbecker, U., Potthast, J.M., Csato, M., Sladowsly, D., Dteiling, W. & Brantom, P. (1998). EU/COLIPA In vitro phototoxicity validation study, results of phase II (bliand trial), part 1: the 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test. Toxicology in Vitro 12, 305-327. pdf icon
Spielmann, H., Balls, M., Dupuis, J., Pape W.J.W., DeSilva, O., Holzh?tter, H.G Gerberick, F., Liebsch, M., Lovell, W.W. & Pfannenbecker, U. (1998). A study on the phototoxic potential of UV filter chemicals from Annex VII of EU Directive 76/768/EEC in the 3T3 NRU in vitro phototoxicity test. ATLA 26, 679-705. pdf icon
Liebsch, M., Barrabas, C., Traue, D. & Spielmann, H. (1997). Entwicklung eines neuen in vitro tests auf dermale Phototoxizit¦t mit einem Modell menschlicher Epidermis (EpiDermTM). ALTEX 4, 165-174.  

Scientific Information Service (SIS)
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Janusch-Roi, A. and Balls, M. (1999). ECVAM's Scientific Information Service. Symposium "ZEBET's 10 Year Anniversary" 21/22 June 1999, Bundesinstitut fr gesundheitlichen Verbraucheschutz und Veterin¦rmedizin (BgVV), Zentralstelle zur Erfassung und Bewertung von Ersatz- und Erg¦nzungsmethoden zum Tierversuch (ZEBET), Berlin (D). ALTEX 16, 189-192.  

Skin Corrosivity
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Fentem, J.H., Archer, G.E.B., Balls, M., Botham, P.A., Curren, R.D., Earl, L.K., Esdaile, D.J., Holzhtter, H.-G. & Liebsch, M. (1998) The ECVAM interational validation study on in vitro tests for skin corrosivity. 2. Results and evaluation by the Management Team. Toxicology in Vitro 12, 483-524, 1998.  

Validation Process
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Progress in Toxicological Testing: Reduction and Refinement Issues. Recommendations from a Joint UK Government/ECVAM Meeting. Tichias et al. (1998). ATLA 26, 619-627.  
M. Balls & W. Karcher (1995). The Validation of Alternative Test Methods. ATLA 23, 884-886.